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本文摘要:Theevaluationcriterionforgoodinterpretationhasbeenfrequentlydiscussedintheinterpretingcommunityandmanyscholarshaveproposedtheirownopinions.Forexample,Gile’scriteriaincludefidelity,qualityofthevoiceaswellasusageofterminologies,etc;BaoGangpr

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Theevaluationcriterionforgoodinterpretationhasbeenfrequentlydiscussedintheinterpretingcommunityandmanyscholarshaveproposedtheirownopinions.Forexample,Gile’scriteriaincludefidelity,qualityofthevoiceaswellasusageofterminologies,etc;BaoGangproposedcompleteandaccurateinterpretationandfluentdelivery;Buhlercontendedthattheevaluationcriteriaconsistofsenseconsistency.Infact,thecriterionsuchasaccurateinterpretation,consistencyandequivalencecanbesummarizedas“faithfulness”,thoughdifferentresearchersfocusondifferentaspectsoffaithfulness.Therefore,itcanbesaidthatintermsofcriterionforevaluatinginterpretation,“faithfulness”isdiscussedbyresearchersmost.TheInterpretiveTheoryalsohasitsownunderstandingtowards“faithfulness”.AmparoAlbie,animportantscholaroftheParisSchool,putforwardthreeevaluationcriteriaforfaithfulnessinNotionofFaithfulnessinTranslation(LaNotiondeFede’lite’enTraduction):“Intranslating,weshouldbefaithfultotheauthor’intention(levouloirdire)andbeinaccordancewiththespecificmannersofexpressionofthetargetlanguageandthetargetreader.”(quotedfromLederer,2003:69-70)Inthefollowingpart,thesethreestandardswillbeintroducedonebyone.Toevaluatewhethertheinterpretationofacertainspeechisfaithfulornot,firstofall,wecantrytofindoutwhetheritisfaithfultotheintentionofthespeaker.Thiscriterionisrelatedtothefirststageofinterpreting—comprehension.Beingfaithfultothespeaker’sintentionmeansthattheinterpretationshouldbeloyaltowhatthespeakerreallyintendstoexpress,notmerethemechanicalequivalencetotheexactwordsthespeakersays.Thespeaker’sintentionisacomplicatedconcept,forontheonehand,thelinguisticsignificationsofthewordsorsentencesofthespeechsometimescannotrevealwhollytheintention,thereforetheinterpreterneedtoinferitonthebasisofthegiveninformation;ontheother,beingfaithfultothespeaker’sintentioninvolvesotherfactorssuchasthespeaker’sstyle,thisisbecause“sense”,whatthespeakerwantstoconveyandwhathe/shewantsotherstounderstand,isasynthesisoflanguage,identityandexpressionstyleofthespeaker,topicandcommunicativeoccasion.Forinterpreters,word-for-wordinterpretingsometimesdoesnotnecessarilyachievefaithfulness,onlywhentheyputthespeechunderthecontextandcognitiveenvironmentandunderstandtherealintentionofthespeakercantheyproducefaithfulinterpretation.Thiscriterionisassociatedwiththethirdstageofinterpreting—re-expression.Itisknownthatdifferentlanguageshavedifferentmeansofexpression,stylesandrules.Sotobefaithfultothetargetlanguage,interpretersshouldproducetheirinterpretedversioninacco

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rdancewiththerulesofthetargetlanguagesoastomaketheirre-expressionnaturalandidiomatic;otherwise,theycannotmakethemselvesunderstood,thusleadingtofailureofcommunicationbetweenthespeakerandlistener.TakeChineseandEnglishasanexample.Englishstresses“logic”andsuchlogicisshowedinthesentencewithconjunctionswhilethelogicinChineseisseldomexpressedexplicitlywithconjunctions;EnglishsentencesarelongerandmorecomplicatedwhileChinesesentencesareconciseandshort;Chinesepeopleprefertousefour-characterphraseswhiletheequivalenceofsuchfour-character-phrasescanseldombefoundinEnglish;besides,ChinesepeopleprefertouseactivevoicemostofthetimebutEnglishpeoplepreferpassivevoice,etc.Therefore,whileinterpretingChinesetoEnglishorviceversa,interpretersshouldexpressthemselvesaccordingtotherules,expressionmannersandstyleofthetargetlanguage.Seleskovitchpointedoutthattoevaluateinterpretation,weshouldalsoandalwaystaketheresponseofthelistenerortheaudienceintoconsideration.Shealsostressedthatitisnecessarytotargetthelanguagetotheexpectationoftheaudience.Inotherwords,throughtheinterpretedversion,thelistenerisabletograspthesenseofthesourcediscourseandreactasthelistenerwhospeaksthesourcelanguagedoes.Meanwhile,theinterpretationshouldbeacceptabletothelistener,whichmeansitshouldbenaturalandintelligible.Moreover,inthere-expressionstage,aqualifiedinterpretershouldbecapableofidentifyinghimselforherselffromtheresponseoftheaudience.Thismaybedifficultinsimultaneousinterpretingbecauseinterpreterssitinaboothwhichisoftenlocatedbehindtheaudienceorfarawayfromtheaudience.Butinconsecutiveinterpreting,asinterpreterscanfacetheaudience,theycanjudgefromtheresponseoftheaudiencedirectlytoseewhetherornottheinformationofthesourcediscourseiswellreceived.Ifnot,theyshouldmakeadjustmentsorexplanationstohelpthemunderstand.Tosumup,tobefaithfultosense,interpretersshouldbefaithfultotheintendedsenseofthespeechoriginator,tothetargetlanguageandtothespeechreceiver.Thesethreecriteriaworktogetherindispensablyandshouldallbeconsideredatthesametime.Ifonlybeingfaithfultoeitheroneoreithertwoofthem,faithfulnesstosensecanneverbefullyachieved.Thespeakeristhepersonwhoproducesthecontentofthespeechorremarks.AstheInterpretiveTheoryholdsthat“thepositionapersonholds,thepoliticalpointofviewhesupportsandtheprofessionhepracticeswilldeterminehowhewillactatameeting”(Seleskovitch,1978:25),factorsconcerningthespeakercanbedividedintothefollowings.Identitycaninfluencethespeaker’sutterance,forwhatheorshesaysmustaccordwiththeidentity
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